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There are several main causes of turbocharger damage:
To work effectively, a turbo needs a constant flow of clean oil, and to keep your turbo in top condition, you need to ensure that you change the oil and oil filter regularly.
This helps to prevent the build up of carbon deposits and contaminants that can cause abrasive damage to the inside of your turbocharger, reducing its efficiency and causing irreparable damage over time. Fully synthetic oil produces the least amount of carbon.
Sometimes, foreign objects like broken engine components, dust particles, small stones, dirt and leaves can enter your turbocharger, either via the compressor inlet or the turbine inlet.
These can then cause impact damage and abrasion to the compressor wheels and turbine blades, which will start to reduce the efficiency of the turbo. To prevent this happening, you need to ensure that your air filter is serviced regularly, and that you check your turbo for loose connections or debris.
If there are any leaks, cracks or poor seals between the compressor and the engine, the turbo will have to work much harder than it should have to increase this pressure. This will reduce the efficiency and boost delivered by the turbo.